Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas
2. Academic and professional publications and research –Authors M-Z
Manea, Alexandru I. & Barbu, Ioana A.
(2017). Mental Space meets Psychology – a new Paradigm and Approach to Psychotherapy, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
, 20 (3), 37-43.
This paper outlines the basic concepts of mental space representations, its primary concepts and the connection to psychology and psychotherapy. Also included are the descriptions of three mental space based psychotherapies [including Clean Space] and their applications. A comprehensive list of references containing case-studies and researches is also provided.
Manea, Alexandru I. & Barbu, Ioana A.
(2018). Psihoterapiile Spațiale O abordare emergentă, ArtTE - Revista de terapii creativ-expresive și dezvoltare personală unificatoare
, volumul 5, numarul 8.
Article about Mental Space Psychology as an emergent approach with a section dedicated to Clean Space published in "ArtTE - The magazine of creative-expressive therapies and Personal Development".
Martin, John N.T.
(2007). Book Review: Metaphors in Mind: Transformation Through Symbolic Modelling, by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins, Metaphor and Symbol
Download prepress version: Martin_2007-Metaphors_in_Mind_Review.pdf
Martin, John N.T. & Sullivan, Wendy
Conversations at a recent conference suggested that the work it describes is not yet well known to metaphor researchers. Perhaps this reflects the gulf between the practitioner/trainer world of shared experiences and face-to-face contact versus the academic world of journal articles and statistics. But if I had a research student working on metaphor, experience of Lawley and Tompkins' work would be a key part of the basic training because of its striking capacity to bring our internal metaphorical worlds to life.
(2007). "... and good systems practice is [pause] like [pause] what?": 'Clean Language' and 'Metaphor Landscapes' as potential tools in Systems Practice. A revised version of the paper presented at the 11th United Kingdom Systems Society (UKSS) International Conference,
Oxford University, 3-5 September 2007, Joined up thinking for a joined up world. Revised version published in Systemist
Vol 29, No 3, Nov 2007.
Download: academia.edu/18541536/ or cleanchange.co.uk/cleanlanguage/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/JNTM-WS-Final.pdf
Checkland has referred to the primacy of cognitive processes, and the importance of self-reflection and phenomenology in modern Systems thinking. This paper takes that position at its face value and describes a way of reflecting on one’s sense-making cognitive processes that is well established in its own domain, but not widely known to Systems practitioners. It was developed as ‘clean language’ by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989) and subsequently codified as ‘symbolic modelling’ by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins (Lawley & Tompkins, 2000).
McGrath, Maureen (1998). A Study in the Use of Symbolism in Counselling. MA thesis: University of Durham, Centre for Studies in Counselling.
Munsoor, Mohamed Safiullah (2018) Knowing Thyself: A Causal Model of Spiritual Leadership and Self-Development: A Case Study of the Naqshbandiyah Khalidiyah Spiritual Order in Malaysia. Department of Aqida and Islamic Thought, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. (Doctoral thesis)
The emerging data set was constructed through the use of the ‘clean language’ approach, which builds on the original narratives of the subjects, with methodological triangulation including interview and survey data.
(2009). Beyond Narrative: Modelling Metaphor in Environmental Discourse. MSc thesis:Cranfield University, School of Applied Sciences innovation and Design for Sustainability
(2011). The Application of Metaphors in Psychotherapy, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Masters in Research in Speech, Language & Cognition, University College London
, Division of Psychology & Language
(2012). The Use of Figurative Language in Psychotherapy, University College London, Working Papers in Linguistics 2012
, pp. 75-93
(2014). Metaphor in Psychotherapeutic Discourse: Implications for Utterance. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics
, 50(1), 2014, pp. 75–97.
Download from: academia.edu/6750568/
Nehyba, Jan & Lanc, Jakub
This paper examines figurative expressions in two passages from attested psychotherapy exchanges where explicit use is made of metaphor for therapeutic purposes and discusses the use of Clean Language in this context.
(2013). Koncept čistého jazyka v psychoterapii (The Concept of Clean Language in Psychotherapy), Psychoterapie: praxe – inspirace – konfrontace
, 7(2) 123-133 Brno: Masaryk university.
Preprint paper: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/335/1/Koncept-cIisteIho-jazyka-v-psychoterapii/
Nehyba, J., & Svojanovský, P.
The article introduces 'clean language' or a 'clean approach' - one of the post-modern oriented
therapeutic approaches, building on the ideas of the late David Grove.
The way of facilitating the therapeutic session is specific in the 'cleanness' from the therapists conscious and unconscious contents it
strives for in the interaction. This allows the client to immerse
himself deeper in his own mind-body processes and their organization.
After the theoretical background, the article focuses on the practical
example of how is possible to 'let emerge' metaphors, self-reflections,
insights or 'aha!' moments for the client. In the concluding part, the
text offers a discussion of the principles of the clean approach and the
ways it can be inspiring for therapists.
(2017). Clean language as a data collection tool. Chapter 5 in V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský, et al., Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge
(pp. 130-147). Brno: Masaryk University.
Download at: Nehyba&Svojanovsky2017-Clean_language_as_a_data_collection_tool.pdf
This chapter explains and evaluates how the data collection method entitled Clean Language was implemented in our research. In the context of pedagogical sciences, it is a new way of interviewing, which helps to gather data as closely as possible from first person (Searle, 1992; Varela, 1999). We explain how we understand the term Clean Language and how we interpret it, and then move to the actual analysis of how we used this method in practice, i.e. in conducting the research interviews.
(2013). Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?, Creative Education
2013. Vol.4, No.7A2, 32-36 Published Online July 2013 in SciRes
This paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using metaphor as a tool to support meta-learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors. All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.
(2014). Teaching and learning pedagogies to enhance practice in Higher Education: a practitioner's perspective. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Liverpool John Moores University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Liverpool John Moores University
, Faculty of Education, Health and Community.
Nixon, Sarah & Walker, Caitlin
This mixed method approach studied the enhancement of the student experience through creating conditions
where excellent learning can occur both individually and through working
in communities of practice. Includes the application of Clean
Language and Systemic Modelling.
(2009). Personal Development Planning - Inspiring Capability, chapter 11 in Enhancing Student Centred Learning in Business and Management, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism
, edited by John Buswell and Nina Becket for HLST, Oxford Brookes University, published by Threshold Press.
PDP has been an area of interest within
the Sport Development programme at Liverpool John Moores University. The
chapter begins with the context for the project and what we wanted to
happen. Then outlines the philosophy underpinning our approach and
introduce key features including the notion of autogenic metaphors for
learning, clean (metaphor-free) questions, clean set-up and clean
feedback. It continues with how we went about engaging staff and
students, some challenges, learning and the impact so far, and then ends
with a summary of how we will do things differently in the coming year year
Nixon, S. & Walker, C.
(2009). Modelling the curriculum through metaphors: one programme's approach, CETL Journal: Innovations in Practice,
As part of exploring Personal Development Planning (PDP) across the Sport Development programme we decided to gather the views of staff on the programme to see if we could agree on a common model, philosophy and message. This approach, called Metaphors at Work (Walker 2007), allows individuals and groups to explore their own thoughts and perceptions on a subject, in this case the degree programme, through the development of metaphors [using Clean Language] and their associated meaning. The process has a number of stages which are documented in this paper with the overall objective being to get to a jointly shared view amongst staff.
(1999). Imagery and Metaphor,
part of the OU Business and Management postgraduate course B822
: Creativity, Innovation and Change produced by John Martin
. The course includes three videos related to David Grove's work featuring Caitlin Walker
: Engaging the Imagination
; Group Metaphor Development
; and Clean Language
How do you address problematic issues at
work? This [programme] reveals more
creative ways to solve problems, other than relying on rational
techniques such as brainstorming and lateral thinking. Employees at a
small software company are shown how to access their unconscious minds
using the power of imagery, associative thinking, [Clean Language] and
metaphor, to find
solutions and creative approaches to their work. Meanwhile at a
Neuro-Linguistic Programming seminar, participants learn to use
metaphor for practical problem-solving. The
facilitators also comment and discuss their techniques and
observations, including the significance of gesture, body language and
breathing in the sessions.
(2004). Practical Thinking: an online course in perception, ideas and action,
T185, part of the Technology Faculty’s 'Relevant
Knowledge' programme (2004-2006, no longer available) produced by John Martin
This ten-week course is presented online and explores the practical
role of metaphor in shaping and transforming various areas of imagery,
thinking and communication. Application areas include the concept development
stages of policy-making and design, the generation of ideas, visualising
implementation issues, the communication of complex project ideas, problem-solving,
resolving differences, and so on. T185 draws heavily on the ideas of cognitive scientists such as Lakoff
and Johnson, classic writers on creative problem solving such as George
Prince, management writers such as Gareth Morgan and practitioners such
as Lawley and Tompkins.
Owen, Ian R.
(1989). Beyond Carl Rogers: The work of David Grove, Journal of Interprofessional Care
, 4(4), 186-196. informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/13561828909046386
Download from: researchgate.net/publication/232036252
Owen, Ian R.
This article is written with the belief that psychotherapy can be
enriched by the addition of ideas from anthropology and holistic health
care. This paper introduces the psychotherapy of David Grove. It re-emphasizes the need for therapists, or healers of
all kinds, to be aware of the language, therapeutic structure and
experience of clients. Clients' experiences are more fully understood
in the context of greater awareness of the inter-relationships of
language, experience, belief, enculturation and communication. Such
awareness is posited as being crucial to holistic practitioners.
The case for
a phenomenological therapy is put forward.
(1996). Clean Language: A linguistic-experiential phenomenology, in
A.-T. Tymieniecka (Ed.) Analecta Husserliana
, Vol. 48. pp. 271-297, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Pickerden, Anita M Download from: researchgate.net/publication/300670475 In this study [David Grove's] clean language is applied to make a reproducible method for phenomenologists as this new procedure adheres to many phenomenological first principles. The method reveals the place of metaphor and metonymy as possible connections between language and lived experience.
(2013) How do older workers in the fire & Rescue service deal with work life balance issues as they plan for, approach and transition through retirement? Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester
Pieśkiewicz, B. & Kołodkiewicz
(2011). Metafora w coachingu: zastosowanie metody Clean Coaching w pracy z organizacjami [Metaphor in coaching: Application of Clean Coaching method in working with organisations]. In: Czarkowska, L. (ed.), Coaching jako katalizator rozwoju organizacji [Coaching as a catalyst in orgnizational growth]. Warszawa: New Dawn. Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2009). Clean Language and Metaphor: The Work of David Grove in Imagery for Pain Relief: A scientifically grounded guidebook for clinicians.
pp. 206-224 London: Routledge.
Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2011) David Grove's Metaphor Therapy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality
Download from: journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/IC.30.3.d
Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove's approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.
Pole, Nick & Cadney, Peter
(2016) ‘Very, Very Traumatic’ Working with Trauma with Clean Language and Shiatsu. Shiatsu Society Journal (UK)
, Winter 2016, Issue 140.
Rain, T., Lawley, J. & Henwood, S.
(2016) From coaching and therapy to research interviewing: reflections and recommendations from practice. Acuity
, April 2016 Volume 5.
Rees, J. & Manea, A.I.
This article shares the personal experiences of one practitioner (Thora Rain) who made a successful transition to researcher. It
focuses on the adjustments practitioners need to make to become high-quality researchers. It also draws on the longer experience of two of the paper authors (James Lawley and
Suzanne Henwood) and offers some guidance to those thinking about taking on a research
role, mentioning clean interviewing as a "helpful methodology".
(2016). The Use of Clean Language and Metaphor in Helping Clients Overcoming Procrastination. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
. 19 (3).
Download from: jep.ro/images/pdf/cuprins_reviste/75_art_5.pdf
Robinson (Foreman), Fe
In psychotherapy, coaching and personal development, problems are often framed in terms of metaphor. For example, procrastination might be described as a “mysterious” force, holding the client back from creating the happy, fulfilled life he often dreams of. Clean Language, created by the late David Grove between the 1980s and the 1990s, is a process designed to use such client metaphors as an engine for positive change. In this article, we show how it works in a typical one-on-one session.
(2013). How does exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best
affect levels of well-being in an ambiguous and rapidly changing public sector work
environment? Paper presented to The Third International Neuro-Linguistic
Programming Research Conference
, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July
Rusch, Doris C.
A shorter version was published in Acuity
, 2013(4), 104-126
Full paper at: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/332/
This study found that exploring metaphorical representations of
organisational change at its best correlated significantly with
increasing well-being during a period of organisational change;
potentially mitigating deleterious effects and causing a
small well-being uplift. Group
and one-to-one interventions showed similar well-being correlations
over a three-month period. However, the nature of the effect was different,
with insights and positive affect the prime outcome for the one-to-one
intervention, and workshops additionally leading to experimentation with
new skills. There are four implications of this study for clean
language practitioners. Firstly, clean language and
symbolic modelling interventions are suitable as part of the change
management mix to support employee well-being. Secondly, metaphorical
interventions have effects over time, undertaking interventions over a
period is recommended. Thirdly, creating an open, safe environment for
exploration and insight is key to supporting well-being. Finally,
teaching clean language will enable application of learning into other
contexts. Using one-to-one interventions may require more sessions to
lead to behavioural change.
(2017) Making Deep Games – Designing Games with Meaning and Purpose.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
This book offers a perspective into how to make games that tackle the whole bandwidth of the human experience, games that teach us something about ourselves enable thought-provoking emotionally rich experiences and promote personal and social change. Dr Rusch, Ass. Prof. at DePaul University says "the book is strongly influenced by Metaphor Research and Symbolic Modeling". See especially section 3.3.1.
Sanders, J., de Vries, R., Besseling, S., & Nieuwenhuijze, M.
(2018) 'Such a waste'–Conflicting communicative roles of Dutch midwifery students in childbirth decision making - Midwifery
(online 21 June 2018, in press)
In-depth interviews and a focus group with seventeen Dutch midwifery
students were conducted and analyzed applying a grounded theory
approach. The interviewer asked neutral, non-judgmental questions, using clean language (Tompkins and Lawley, 1997).
(2013). "So What's a Meta For?" InterAction - The Journal of Solution Focus in Organisations
, Volume 5, Number 2, November 2013, pp. 35-53(19), SFCT.
(2014). Towards a Model of Clean Supervision. The Listener: A journal for coaches
No.6 October 2014.
Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P.
(Eds.). (2016). STUDENTI UČITELSTVÍ MEZI TACITNÍMI A EXPLICITNÍMI ZNALOSTMI
Brno: Masarykova Univerzita MUNI press. ISBN:978-80-210-8428-5 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8429-2016
The book (in Czech) discusses: metaphors, sharing knowledge, subjective tacit theories of teaching students teachers, unexpected circumstances and Clean Language research interviewing.
Chapter authors: Vlastimil Švec, Jan Nehyba, Petr Svojanovský, James Lawley, Radim Šíp, Eva Minaříková, Blanka Pravdová, Barbora Šimůnková, Jan Slavík.
Free Download: https://munispace.muni.cz/index.php/munispace/catalog/book/887
English transaltion Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.) (2017). Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. Brno: Masaryk University. ISBN:978-80-210-8605-0 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8605-2017
Download free from: http://munispace.muni.cz/book?id=887 (click "English")
The book focuses on pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge in the second
stage of their studies. It deals with the
theoretical background and highlights the need for a radical turn in the
methodology when we want to explore this concept. Drawing on this, a
qualitative method of data collection which was used in the presented
research, so called clean language, is described in detail. The
empirical part of the book presents studies concerning topics connected
to pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge – unexpected situations,
student teachers’ beliefs or explicit and tacit knowledge sharing.
(2010). How Clean Is Our Language? Training and Development in Australia
, Vol. 37, No. 4, Jul 2010: 36-37.
(2005). Legacy of War: Experiences of members of the Ulster Defence
, Conflict Trauma Resource Centre, Belfast.
van Helsdingen, Annemiek & Lawley, James
(2012). Zuiver belevingsonderzoek: het vermijden van onbedoelde beïnvloeding in kwalitatief onderzoek, Kwalon, 17(3):43-50.
Download from: tijdschriftkwalon.nl/inhoud/tijdschrift_artikel/KW-17-3-43/
Translated from the original Dutch version as Modelling
Shared Reality: avoiding unintended influence in qualitative research, Kwalon Vol 3, October 2012. (Journal of the Netherlands Association for Qualitative Research).
Available in English at: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/328/
Modelling Shared Reality is a new qualitative research methodology which
is rooted in Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling. It minimizes
undesired influence of the researcher during all stages of the research:
design, interviews, analysis and reporting. The methodology is action
oriented: both the process and the results function as a catalyst for
action, behavioural and organizational change.
(2011). Aligning identity in legal services firms: Do senior partners in legal services firms possess the core characteristics of identity to work in alignment within the firm?
Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for award of the degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Portsmouth, June 2011.
Tompkins, Penny, & James Lawley
(2006). Coaching with Metaphor, in Cutting
Edge Coaching Techniques Handbook, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Coaching at Work,
Tompkins, Penny, Wendy Sullivan & James Lawley
(2005). Tangled Spaghetti in My Head: Making use of metaphor, Therapy Today, Journal of the British Association for Counselling and Pychotherapy
, October 2005.
(2011). 'Symbolic Modelling' as an innovative phenomenological method in HRD research: the work-life balance project, presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe
, University of Gloucestershire, 25th–27th May 2011.
Tosey, Paul Download from: epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7135/
This project applied symbolic modelling in order to elicit the naturally
occurring metaphors of six mid-career managers in the UK, relating to
the way they experienced work-life balance. The analysis yielded a
unique metaphor landscape for each manager. A key finding is that,
although the ‘work-life balance’ metaphor is widespread, not one of the
interviewees’ main metaphors overtly involved ‘a balance’. However, a
number of their metaphors implied some form of balancing, for example
‘juggling’, ‘surfing’, or being in ‘equality’. The study illustrates
potential enhancements that symbolic modelling and the clean language questioning
technique can bring to phenomenological interviewing and analysis in
HRD research. The results also have implications for the understanding
of work-life balance, and for managers and human resource professionals
who are dealing with work-life balance issues in the workplace.
(2014). Clean Language in Research Interviews. Rapport 40
(2015). And what kind of question is that? Thinking about the function of questions in qualitative interviewing. Chapter 14 in Handbook of Research Methods on Human Resource Development
. Editors, Saunders, M. N. K. & Tosey, P. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Look inside the book: amazon.com/Handbook-Research-Development-Handbooks-Management/dp/1781009236Tosey, P., Lawley, J. and Meese, R.
This chapter explores qualitative interviewing, drawing from a project that investigated managers' metaphors of work-life balance, informed by a practice called Clean Language. The chapter highlights the function of questions in interviews and considers how to design and ask questions in order to elicit data of good quality.
(2014). Eliciting Metaphor through Clean Language: an Innovation in Qualitative Research, British Journal of Management
. Vol. 25, 629–646.
doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12042. Purchase at: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8551.12042/abstract
Download a free copy of preprint version: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/807943/
Tosey, P., Sullivan, W. & Meyer, M.
This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean
Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based
qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean
Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in
order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world;
despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational
and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods
for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how
Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by
addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce
extraneous metaphors into an interviewee's account at both data
collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a
collaborative academic–practitioner project in which Clean Language was
used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six
mid-career managers, relating to the way they experienced work–life
balance. The first contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the
potential of Clean Language for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors
in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world.
The second contribution is to show how Clean Language can enhance the
rigour and authenticity of interview-based qualitative research more
(2013). Clean Sources: Six Metaphors a Minute? University of Surrey ISBN: 978-1-84469-029-9.
(2006). Breathing in Blue by Clapton Duck Pond, Counselling Children and Young People
, British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, Dec 2006, pp.2-5.
Walsh, B. , Nixon, S. , Walker, C. and Doyle, N.
(2015). Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process. Creative Education
, 6, 953-960.
Download from file.scirp.org/Html/6-6302593_57272.htm
Ward, C., Tosey, P. & Cairns-Lee, H.
In this article we examine the “clean feedback” model developed by
Walker and Doyle (2006) and explore its impact on the learning
experiences of a purposeful sample of eleven beginning physical
education teachers. The
findings indicate that the model has improved the students’ ability to
give and receive both positive and negative feedback and to improve
students self awareness and understanding of their own learning and
(2013). 'A Strange Route to Get Here': Metaphors of Leadership Development and Leadership. Presented at 14th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe
, 5-7 June 2013: HRD in Turbulent Seas-Continued Global Economic Uncertainty: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Brighton, Brighton Business School, UK.
(2012) “Do you see what I see?” Coaching at Work
. May/June | Vol 7 Issue 3
Wing, Suzanne Brown
(1994) David Grove Metaphor Therapy and traumatic memory resolution with incarcerated sex offenders
. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, The Union Institute & University, Ohio. March 1994.