Terminology and format of diagrams
When using the word ‘outcome’ we make a number of distinctions:
Desired outcomes refer to that universal human impulse of wanting to create something new in the world or to develop our self.
Desired outcomes are distinguished from the desire to remedy or solve problems (defined below in Stage 1).
Desired outcomes have yet to happen while actual outcomes have already happened.
There are always effects or consequences of an outcome. In the case of a desired outcome the effects are expected or anticipated and may or may not happen. Whereas once an outcome has actually happened there will always be further effects – some intended and often many unexpected and surprising.
In the diagrams below we have used a consistent format to indicate different aspects of the process:
- The purpose of each stage is indicated by the title of that stage.
- The questions in the diagrams show you what to do.
- Arrows show the usual flow though the process.
- We use colours to distinguish between different classes of experience as described by a client:
Red = a Problem
Purple = a Remedy
Blue = a desired Outcome
Green = a condition necessary for change
Orange = a change
Our diagrams are only one way to conceptualise ACFC, others have devised their own versions.Overview
Before we go into the details of each stage we will look at the process as a whole and the relationship between the five stages shown in Figure 1.
The five stages are provided as a framework to guide the facilitator while accompanying a client on their unique journey of self-evolution. Your knowledge about where they are in the process will inform your choice of which clean question to ask and what to ask it of.
While we have presented the five stages sequentially the process is not linear, the transition
between stages is necessarily ill-defined because so much depends on the individual circumstances happening in the moment. And,
change is unpredictable, iterative, fuzzy and emergent. Stage 1 does not happen just at the beginning. The client may shift their desired outcome once or several times during a session. Unforeseen problems can reveal themselves at any time. Therefore the client will likely be taken through the Stage-1 process several times during a session.
Similarly, self-modelling is a recursive process which frequently produces spontaneous and surprising changes. Whether this happens during Stages 2, 3 or 4 no one can say. As soon as
a change occurs, the client is immediately invited to mature the change and the process moves to Stage 5. Like all other stages, maturing is not a one-time event. It will likely to involve a series of iterations as the client’s landscape metamorphoses and a new organisation emerges.
In its simplest terms the ‘formula’ for using ACFC is:
Start at the beginning and go through the stages in order.
Use the client's evolving desired outcome throughout the session as a dynamic reference for where to go next.
Acknowledge and note any problems as they arise and apply the Problem-Remedy-Outcome model.
Continue until a change spontaneously occurs, then immediately mature the change and see what effect it has on the rest of the landscape, in particular any problems identified previously.
Stop when a new landscape emerges which is agreeable to the client and can handle previously identified problems – or you run out of time.
To get a sense of the nature of the process note the metaphors we used in Figure 1:
A subtle yet vital aspect of ACFC is the perspective the facilitator takes in relation to the client and their internal landscape — the trialogue
as David Grove called it. The facilitator sets aside their own perceptions and commits to working exclusively with and within the client's metaphor landscape. ACFC is a guide for the facilitator and yet the purpose of each stage (as highlighted by its title) is what the client does
. The facilitator's role is to facilitate the client to self-model — to identify, develop, explore and mature — how their inner world works.
Holding this perspective requires the facilitator to split their attention in an unusual way. The facilitator is both tracking the progress of the client’s process from an outside
perspective and simultaneously tracking the client’s attention from their internal
perspective.What is a change?
Before we journey through the stages, let’s pause and consider what we mean by ‘a change’.
In Metaphors in Mind
some point the client experiences a change. Given how little is known
about the process of how people change, probably the most accurate
description of this is: ‘and then a miracle occurs’. Thereafter the aim
of the process itself changes—from seeking change, to seeking to
preserve, stabilise and maintain the changes. Eventually the new becomes
old as the client continues their journey of personal development. (p. 40)
was in 2000, and all the revelations of neuroscience in the last ten years have only
served to strengthen our opinion. How exciting to be working with a
process that can’t be fully defined, can’t be predicted and can’t be controlled – makes you think of Mother Nature, doesn’t it?
The first thing to notice is that ‘change’ is not a stage in the process. It is not something that you do, it is an effect that can happen anywhere or at anytime. The three orange starbursts in the overview diagram (Figure 1) signify a change happening at Stage 2 or 3 or 4. We have attempted to show the likelihood of a change occurring at each
stage by the thickness of the arrows leading from the starbursts to
Changes may be surprising but they are not random. ACFC is a cumulative process. As a general rule the more a client is facilitated to self-model cleanly, the more likely they will experience something shift.
It is only though the effects that the significance of a change can be known. Development rarely happens in a road-on-the-way-to-Damascus moment, more
often it involves a series of incremental and iterative changes. When a
complex adaptive system changes there will always be unexpected
effects. The serendipitous nature (or not) of an event cannot be predicted in advance, it can only be known after
This is why immediately a change is detected we mature it to find out what happens over time and to the rest of the landscape. Often a small change will lead to another change, which will result in another change, and so on in a cascade or contagion. In this way even apparently small changes can set in train a process that ends with major effects. This is such an unpredictable process that we recommend you give up trying to second guess when the client’s system will experience a change and what the effects of that change will be. Instead, put your attention on encouraging the conditions which offer the opportunity for change; on noticing the cues that indicate something is
changing; on responding to those cues by maturing the change; and then sit back and marvel at what unfolds.
With enough experience of clients and their metaphor landscape changing you can develop an intuitive signal for when the client's system is on the edge of, or has the potential for a creative change. When you get that signal, other than inviting the client's attention to stay where it is, your job is to do as little as possible.
We will now look at the stages of the journey in more detail.Stage 1 - Identify a desired outcomePurpose of Stage 1
All change processes have to start somewhere. How the client starts and
how the facilitator starts can have a major effect on the direction the remainder of the session takes. David Grove trained us to pay particular attention to a client's first words.
In ACFC we start by asking the client what they would like to have happen. While commonly clients respond with a statement it could be a sound, a gesture, a drawing or anything else that represents how the client would like themselves or the world to be.
We did not know of any method that explained how to facilitate a client so that they identified a desired outcome in which they were not expected to meet any criteria. So we self-modelled how we did it cleanly. The result was our Problem-Remedy-Outcome (PRO) Model.
The key to using this model is to be able to instantly recognise throughout the process
when the client is attending to a current Problem, a proposed Remedy, or a desired Outcome. To do this you have to model what kind of experience the client is attending to from their perspective
. This sounds simple, and it is, but it is not something even highly experienced therapists, coaches and facilitators do naturally. If you want to master PRO you will need to set aside many of your presuppositions, all mind-reading and apply yourself diligently to only work with the descriptions used by the client.
The PRO model is a two-stage process: (1) identify whether the client is describing a Problem, a Remedy or a desire Outcome; and (2) respond with the appropriate Clean Language question which invites them to attend to a desired outcome. We’ll say more about this below.
We will now examine the nature of desired outcomes, and the experiential and linguistic differences with problems and remedies. What is a desired outcome?
Desired outcomes describe how the client would like the world to be, or how they would like to be in the world. They differ from remedies because they are not a solution to a problem. When a pilot sets out to fly a plane from A to B they know they may encounter problems along the way, but their aim is not to solve problems, it is to arrive safely – and that’s a desired outcome.
A desired outcome is not the words of a statement. It is a way of relating to the world. However, the most common way of communicating our desires to ourselves and others is through statements. A desired outcome statement has the following distinguishing features:
- It contains a desire word – a want, need, would like, etc. – that indicates an impulse for a new situation, state or behaviour, i.e. for the world to be different in some way
- The outcome has not yet happened, i.e. it is in the future.
- It does not overtly reference a problem.
The last distinction is important. Even though you may think you can guess the client's problem, unless it is stated, you will be guessing. If a client says “I would like to be more confident’ you might assume their problem is ‘low self-esteem’ (or something similar). But that would be your
assumption since the client has not given the slightest indication that the metaphors of ‘esteem’ and ‘low’ are part of the way they imagine themselves. Even if you assumed they suffered from ‘a lack of confidence’ you would still be presumptuous. Just because the client says they want ‘more’ confidence does not necessarily mean they 'lack' anything or that the amount of confidence they currently have is a problem for them. If the world record holder for 100m and 200m Usain Bolt says he wants to run faster, it doesn't mean he has a problem; he may simply want to improve what he already does. Secondly, even if the client experiences a problem they may not conceive of it through the metaphor of ‘lack’. For them the problem may be ‘scared’ or ‘overwhelmed’ or ‘feeling like a door mouse’ or ... a thousand other possibilities, many of which you would never guess. It is much easier to stay clean, stick with the client's words and to refrain from guessing and assuming.
It takes time and mental effort to try and second-guess a client’s problem – assuming they have one. With ACFC and Symbolic Modelling it’s more effective to put your attention on what they have
told you and marvel at just how much information is contained in those few words placed in that particular order and said (or written) in that precise manner. To paraphrase Charles Faulkner, there is a world within each word.
We are aiming for the client to attend to that world. That world will be an inner, private, first-person world since at this stage their desired outcome only exists in their imagination. Desired outcomes are not WFOs, SMART or BHAGs
While the Well-Formed Outcomes of NLP, SMART goals and Big Hairy Audacious Goals have similarities to our definition of desired outcome, there is an important difference. They require the facilitator to decide whether what the client has said is ‘specific’, ‘measurable’ ‘realistic’, ‘achievable’ or ‘audacious’ enough
. This will inevitably involve the facilitator’s personal preferences since what they may think as specific, measurable, realistic, achievable and audacious may vary enormously from what anyone else or their client thinks.
In ACFC the facilitator is still making a judgement but instead of a personal preference it is judgement sourced in the client's words and based on the criteria: does the sentence contains a desire word, is it set in the future and does it not
reference a problem?
We are not saying our definition is better than other models, we are saying it is different and simpler, and consequently gets different results. If being audacious or specific etc. does not suit the client, what are they to do? In this situation many facilitators will (unintentionally) help the client change their language to fit the facilitator's preferences. And many clients comply – or at least appear to comply. Basically, the aim of ACFC is to leave the client as much freedom as possible to determine their own
criteria for what constitutes their personal desired outcome.Timeframes: The 3-Box Model
Our aim is to facilitate the client to identify a desired outcome and often as the session unfolds other related outcomes make an appearance. The 3-box outcome model is a way to track shifts in a client's desired outcome in relation to the time frame when the outcome can happen:
- Over the long term
- After the session
- During the session
- In the moment
Commonly the initial timeframe of the client's outcome will be on what they want to have happen after the session and beyond. As a session progresses the client will often describe their desired outcomes with shorter and shorter time frame, until they are working on something that can happen 'live' in the moment.
CLIENT'S DESIRED OUTCOME
I want to have a happy life.
Over the long term
I would like to get married some day.
After the session
I want to know how to take the first step.
During the session
I'm now ready to make a decision.
In the moment
Encouraging desired outcomes that have shorter time frames does
not negate the original longer-term outcome, it simply shifts attention. The
shorter-timeframe desired outcomes can be thought of as nested
inside longer-term desires like Russian Dolls. For simplicity Figure 2 shows smaller boxes nested within larger
Just as we are not problem-focussed, neither are we solution-focussed. By
our definition a solution retains a relationship with the problem it is attempting to
solve, and therefore remains indirectly problem-focussed.
neither are we goal or outcome focussed in the commonly used meaning of
those terms. Rather
the approach ACFC adopts is outcome orientated
. There is a constant
orientation towards, and reference to the client’s desired outcome. We consider a desired outcome to be a dynamic reference
because as the session progresses the formulation and emphasis of
the client's desires often change. The facilitator needs to
track these changes.
What happens to Problems?
While ACFC is an outcome-orientated approach, it is not anti-problem and it doesn’t only go for the ‘positive’ – quite the opposite. We think problems play a fantastically important role in the development of people's lives. We also think that problems get far too much press. In everyday conversation people regularly spend a large majority of their time talking about the characteristics, causes and reasons of their problems. A small proportion is devoted to proposing solutions, and a tiny amount to how they would like themselves or the world to be — a desired outcome. ACFC seeks to redress this imbalance.
There is also a difference between the problems a person describes if you start by asking, 'What's the problem?' and the problems that arise when a person is contemplating realising their desired outcome.
The most efficient way we know of identifying the latter kind of problem is to support the client to establish and develop a desired outcome landscape and to wait and see what problems (if any) appear. When a problem appears which interferes with a person constructing and maintaining the imaginary future they want, you can assume that how that happens in the session is symbolic (or a fractal) of what happens in their life outside.
ACFC aims to establish a desired outcome as quickly and respectfully as possible. The stated desire acts as a dynamic reference point
against which the relevance of problems can be considered. Working with problems is first about acknowledging them, and secondly about when and how to attend to them — timing and context are everything.What is a Remedy?
The first version of PRO was called PSO – Problem, Solution, Outcome. However we found that the world ‘solution’ brought with it associations that were contrary to what we were attempting to achieve; therefore we changed ‘solution’ to ‘remedy’.
Solutions and remedies have their place. If you’ve got a dripping tap – fix it. If you’re experiencing an acute pain – do something to relieve it. After a problem has been solved, remedied or cured, what remains? In a word, nothing. When the tap is fixed it works as before, there is no sign of change. When a headache disappears we may not even notice it has gone because there is only an absence. Remedies take away, reduce, remove, avoid, stop and counter problems. They give little clue about how the client would like the world to be after
the remedy has been applied.
We use 'remedy' as a shorthand for proposed
remedy. The ‘proposed’ indicates that these are potential future remedies: solutions that have yet to be implemented rather than ones that have been (successfully) applied. And these remedies are the ones that to some degree clients needs help achieving.
Many of the important aspects of life are not like leaking taps that can be fixed or headaches that can be relieved. Gregory Bateson pointed out that we are making an error of logic when we use these kinds of simple physical remedies and metaphors
for complex, abstract and on-going situations. Waging ‘wars’ on drugs, terror, crime, poverty, cancer or any other abstract noun are examples of political remedies that have major consequences for us all.
Aging is another example. The cosmetic industry want people to regard aging
as a problem that can be remedied with anti-aging cream, pills or
surgery. But getting older is part of living. Sometimes it can be masked
but it can’t be made to go away. An alternative approach is to ask: How
would I like to age?
In the west we seem addicted to the notion that complex social and
personal issues can be solved "once and for all". After an accident or a
failure of a system, how many times have you heard someone on TV
declare “We must never let this happen again”. It’s an honourable aim
but airplanes will continue to crash, people will continue to commit
horrendous crimes and unexpected confluence of circumstances will continue to mean
accidents will happen.
Many problems such as those arising from long-term relationships may not be solvable. Instead, a new kind of relationship needs to be evolved or created that can, in the words of Ken Wilber, "transcend and include
" the previous problems. In ACFC the first step is to envisage the kind of relationship wanted.
This is not to say, ACFC is only useful for the 'big' issues of life. It can be used with highly practical desires too. Individuals have learned to arrive on time, parents to listen to their children, and groups devise a business plan.The PRO model
It’s not for the facilitator to decide what they consider to be a problem, a proposed remedy or a desired outcome. The client's language (and associated body expression) is the arbiter. It can be a challenge for professionals trained in traditional diagnostic techniques to adopt this restriction. We have observed many sessions where facilitators spend much of the time focusing on what they
consider is the central issue without taking into account what the client wants. The clues are always there but it takes a special kind of listening (modelling) to recognise them.
The table below summarises how to distinguish between a client Problem, Remedy or desired Outcome statement, and once identified Figure 3 depicts the Clean Language response that invites the client to attend to a desired outcome.
A difficulty the person does not like.
A desire for a problem to not exist, to be reduced or avoided.
A desire for something new to exist.
- A difficulty in the present (even if the situation occurred in the past or will occur in the future).
- Contains a word or phrase indicating (or presupposing) the person does not like what is happening.
- No stated desire for anything to be different.
- Has yet to happen.
- References a problem.
- Contains a desire for the problem to change.
- Usually a desire for less of something [the problem].
- Often includes a metaphor such as stop, lose, remove, get rid of, solve.
- Usually a variation of "I want not the [problem]".
- Does not contain a clear reference to a problem.
- Contains a desire, want, would like, need for a new situation, state, ability, behaviour or knowledge i.e. to create or add something to them self or the world.
I hate X.
X will upset me.
I don’t like X.
(or, in the context, X can be presupposed to be problematic, e.g. “I am fed up.”)
I need to stop X.
I want X to disappear.
I would like X less often.
I wish I could avoid X.
I don't want X.
Please take X away.
I want Y.
I want to Y.
I would like Y to ...
I need more Y.
I'd like to have Y.
I wish I could Y.
David Grove’s question, ‘And what would you like to have happen?’ is
more permissive and less imposing than many equivalent starting
questions, such as, ‘What do you want (to achieve)?’. It gives clients a
lot of freedom to answer any way they would like, regardless of whether
that is ‘well formed’ or SMART. We want the client to express
themselves in their most natural way because this will reveal the
background structure of their thinking – to themselves and to you.
Notice that the PRO question ‘And when [problem], what
would you like to have happen?’ overtly acknowledges
that there is a context which the client considers problematic, and
then asks them to consider what they would like, given
that the problem
exists exactly as they have defined it. The facilitator makes
no attempt to solve, reframe or in any way change the problem. Instead
we trust the wisdom in
the client's system to discover what
needs to happen to self-learn and evolve into taking appropriate next
steps — or not. We do not presuppose that change is always the best
option for a client, and we are open to them discovering they want something entirely different to what they had first thought.
To summarise, Stage 1 is about using the client's precise words to acknowledge and note problems and proposed remedies, and to facilitate them to identify a desired outcome as soon as it is appropriate to do so. When this happens the facilitator has a 'contract' to support the client to make the changes necessary to realise what they want. A desired outcome statement is our signal that the client is ready to move to Stage 2.Stage 2 - Develop a desired outcome landscape
Once the client has identified a desired outcome, then what? Your job in
Stage 2 is to nurture the client’s initial statement into a mind-body knowing — a
three-dimensional embodied, psychoactive, metaphor landscape within and
around them. David Grove called this process developing
There are many benefits to developing a desired outcome from a statement into a rich mind-body experience. For example, attending to a desired outcome:
- Balances the tendency of many people to overly focus on problems.
- Goes beyond solving a problem.
- Creates something to aspire to or aim for.
- Sets a direction for action and next steps.
- Is sometimes all a person needs to start to make changes in their life.
- 'Provokes' what inhibits the desired outcome from happening to make an appearance.
- Often spontaneously changes the relationship a person has with their problems.
The way to do this is outlined in Figure 4:
How far the client gets towards fully developing a desired outcome landscape will depend on the complexity of the client’s system, the time available and the client’s reactions to their own perceptions.
A desired outcome
landscape will not develop unless perceptual time is held still, and this is what developing questions do. A desired outcome statement will develop into a metaphor
landscape as the client becomes aware of the symbolic nature of their experience.
As a landscape develops a number of things can happen:
A show-stopping problem arises
Return to Stage 1
A difficulty is encountered (which can be incorporated or noted and set aside)
Continue with Stage 2
The client embodies their desired outcome happening
Move to Stage 3
The client spontaneously starts to identify the conditions necessary for change
Follow client into Stage 4*
The client experiences a change
Jump to Stage 5
* You may need to return at some point to Stage 3, to check effects of their desired outcome happening.
When we say a ‘show-stopping problem’ arises we mean the client realises their desired outcome as currently conceived will not get them what they want, or not in the way they want, or the cost of achieving it is too high, or its not what they really want.
Sometimes a problem will surface which seems to have little to do with the desired outcome.
Unless the client indicates that working with the problem takes precedent over their current desired outcome then the problem can be acknowledged, noted, temporarily set aside and their attention returned to developing the original desired outcome landscape. If the client indicates they want to work with a problem, develop it for a short while before returning to Stage 1 to identify new desired outcome in relation to the problem. Notice, you may be using Stage 1 but you are not back to square one because both of you have updated information about the organisation of the client’s desired outcomes.
Generally, the desired outcome landscape is developed enough when one or more of the following occurs:
Stage 3 - Explore effects of desired outcome landscape
- Less and less new information about how the desired outcome is organised is described
- No new problems appear
- The client has identified the main aspects of their landscape and indicates they are satisfied with it
- The client's attention spontaneously shifts to the effects of realising their desired outcome.
Stage 3 draws on the work of the erudite British biologist and systems thinker, Gregory Bateson, imported into NLP as ‘considering the ecology of the wider system’, i.e. exploring the effects
of a client’s desired outcome happening. There are many ways to do this and we have devised a simple approach that uses only two clean questions (see Figure 5).
In Stage 3 the client is invited to imagine what will happen after
their desired outcome is realised, especially in relation to the problems they previously described. And then to consider the effects of the effects, and the effects of the effects of the effects, and so on until the client has gone well beyond what they have considered before – both in terms of space and time.
As a result of exploring effects a number of things can happen:
A show-stopping problem arises
Return to Stage 1
A difficulty is encountered (which can be incorporated or noted and set aside)
Return to Stage 2 if desired outcome landscape needs updating, if not, continue with Stage 3
The effects, and effects of the effects, etc. are explored without a problem
Ask client to specify the latest formulation of their desired outcome and then move on to Stage 4
The client spontaneously starts to identify the conditions necessary for change
Follow client into Stage 4
The client experiences a change
Jump to Stage 5
It is common that simply exploring effects will prompt a change. In fact the 'boundary' between exploring effects in Stage 3 and maturing changes in Stage 5 can happen so seamlessly that it is hard to say when one morphs into the other. At other times the client will report a distinct change which signals they are ready to move for Stage 5.
However, if a change does not spontaneously occur when transitioning to Stage 4 it is important the client has specified the latest formulation of their desired outcome. You request this by asking:
And when [recap desired outcome] what would you like to have happen now?
Stage 4 - identify necessary conditions
Should it be needed, Stage 4 makes use of one of the “strategic approaches” described in Metaphors in Mind
– Approach E: Identifying conditions necessary for change. We chose this particular approach because it either:
provides a plan of what needs to happen
it helps to reveal any hidden logic which might act against the client’s desired outcome actually happening.
Identifying necessary conditions has proved to work particularly well with the kinds of issues client's bring to coaching.
Stage 4 starts when having developed a desired outcome landscape and considered the effects, the client specifies what they would like to have happen now
. Figures 6 shows how necessary condition are identified.
There is a distinction between ACFC and many traditional coaching methods. Rather than a client figuring out how to go from where they are to their goal — from A to B — the process charts a path from B to A using necessary conditions as the compass.
There are two ways to identify necessary conditions. Using Ken Wllber's terminology, "And what needs to happen for ...?" invites depth
, while "And is there anything else that needs to happen for ..." invites span
, and these can be used in combination, as shown in Figure 7.
It is important to ask the necessary conditions questions of a statement that is a desired
outcome and not what you think would be good for them. The process will also
cease to be clean and you may be leading the client if you work from an
Not clean (Leading):
Client: It would be good for me to speak up for myself.Clean:
Facilitator: And what needs to happen for you to speak up for yourself?
Client: It would be good for me to speak up for myself.
Facilitator: And when it would be good for you to speak up for yourself, what would you like to have happen?
Client: First I need to have the confidence.
Facilitator: And what needs to happen for you to have the confidence?
the first example there is no stated desire for the outcome, in the
second the word 'need' provides the permission to ask the 'And what
needs to happen for ...?' question.
There is a good example of identifying necessary conditions in the video: A Strange and Strong Sensation
Once conditions have been identified the information can be utilised in a number of ways. Three of the more common are to identify:
a. The first condition that needs to be fulfilled for the client to start the journey towards their desired outcome. Often this can be traced back to a specific behaviour or decision the client could do — if they want — i.e. it is up to them.
b. The most salient condition, the one on which many of the other conditions depend.
c. Any inherent logic within the conditions which is problematic, e.g. the client says one or more of the essential conditions cannot or will not be met; circularities or paradox are involved; there are so many conditions the likelihood of fulfilling them all becomes diminishingly small.
In all three cases the facilitator's responses is the same:
And when [problematic condition(s)], what would you like to have happen?
Depending on the client's response, the session may be concluded or they may need to take a trip through the whole ACFC process again, or anywhere in between.
However, in most cases facilitating the client to self-model the conditions necessary for change to occur will be enough for the system to start changing — the cue to transition to Stage 5.Stage 5 - Mature changes
Given change can spontaneously occur at any moment, and frequently does, the cue to mature a change can appear at any time. Maturing involves three processes. The moment a change occurs the client's attention is directed to developing
Maturing has many purposes:
First, maturing offers the
client's system the opportunity to consolidate the changed landscape. In
this way the client gets to know how the newly configured landscape can
form new self-sustaining patterns. This takes time. We marveled at how David Grove could spend a third of the session maturing changes.
maturing checks if the new landscape is robust enough to handle the
problematic conditions previously mentioned by the client.
maturing checks that the change is appropriate for the ecology of the
client's system. It gives the client's system the chance to 'object' to
the change by raising doubts, concerns, fears and other problems.
while the first three are happening the client is simultaneously
rehearsing making use of the new metaphors. Later this can be extended
into rehearsing real-life situations which the client previously found
Fifth, maturing often sets a direction for changes in the days, weeks and months after the session.
As a result of maturing, one of three things happen:
The changed landscape is consolidated into a resource which can handle the previous problems
Finish the session
An existing problem prevents or counters the change
Return to Stage 1
A new problem emerges
Return to Stage 1
After a change, although the previous neural pathways still exist (and may be useful somewhere, some when), maturing a new pattern can become the behaviour of choice. And when that behaviour continues for long enough the new pattern becomes familiar and a natural way of being.