Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas
Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas are listed:
1. Academic and professional publications Authors A-L
2. Academic and professional publications Authors M-Z
3. Conference Presentations
4. Citations in academic and professional journals
I have also compiled lists of:
If you have anything to add please provide the reference via the contact form
and I will gladly add it to the list. James Lawley, updated 16 June 2018
1. Academic and professional publications and research - Authors A-L Akbari, Mohsen
(2013). Metaphors about EFL Teachers' Roles: A Case of Iranian Non-English-Major Students, International Journal of English Language & Translation Studie
s, Vol: 1, Issue: 2, July-September, 2013
Barner, Robert (2008). The dark tower: Using visual metaphors to facilitate emotional expression during organizational change, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 21, Issue 1, pp. 120-137.
Provides a descriptive case study showing how the construction of drawings as visual metaphors can help work groups “give voice” to their emotional reactions to organizational change events, and provide groups with a vehicle for interpreting and framing their experience of organizational change. Throughout the team’s discussion, the author attempted to be guided by each team’s unique perspective and personal interpretation of their drawings by the use of “clean language”.
Boyd, Kelly J. (2013). The Language of Equus: Exploring Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy (EAP) Using the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association (EAGALA) Model, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work, Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, MA.
Britten, David (2015). Felt sense and figurative space: Clients' metaphors for their experiences of coaching. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring. Special Issue No. 9, June 2015 pp. 14-29.
This study examines coaching clients' metaphors for their experiences of coaching. The findings suggest that eliciting metaphors is an effective, though problematic, means of generating experientially-rich research material. [Harland 2012 and Lawley & Tompkins 2000 are discussed.]
Cairns-Lee, Heather (2013). The Inner World of Leaders, Why Metaphors for Leadership Matter, Developing Leaders, Executive Education in Practice, Issue 13, Oct 2013 pp. 27-33, IEDP.
Cairns-Lee, Heather (2015). Images of Leadership Development From the Inside Out. Advances in Developing Human Resources, Volume 17,
issue 3, pp.321-336.
The research is based on in-depth interviews with 30 people who hold positions of
leadership in international businesses. The interviews are conducted using Clean Language and explore how leaders can
become more aware of their inner mental models and
the implications that result from them. This exploration
surfaces and examines the naturally occurring
metaphors and implicit theories held by leaders – the
everyday images of what they think leadership is.
Cairns-Lee, Heather M.
This article explores the subjective and symbolic reality of those in
leadership roles to discover what leaders can learn
about their leadership and its development from
awareness of their own mental models. These models are illuminated by an
of leaders’ naturally occurring metaphors and
implicit leadership theories (ILTs) using clean language to acknowledge
exactly as described while minimizing external
influence or interpretation.
(2017). An exploration of leadership and its development through the inner worlds of leaders using metaphor.
Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey.
Download from: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/845188/
Cairns-Lee, H. & Tosey P.C.
This research explores the naturally occurring metaphors of 30 business leaders from fifteen nationalities … It addresses the question; what can leaders learn about their leadership and development from an exploration of their inner worlds through metaphor? Using Clean Language, an innovative interview method to elicit naturally occurring metaphors, leaders were invited to surface and explore their metaphors of leadership verbally and in drawings. ... Diverse conceptualisations of leadership are revealed in multiple and idiosyncratic metaphors, yet ten 'key' metaphors appear to underlie these diverse expressions. Moreover, the importance of relationship to provide subtle guidance and comfort during exploration of the inner world was revealed. ... Methodological advances are proposed for qualitative interviews that aim to surface individuals’ metaphors.
(2014). Stepping Up, Stepping Back: Metaphors of Leadership. Presented at 15th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research
and Practice across Europe
. Theme “HRD: Reflecting upon the Past, Shaping the Future” 4-6 June, 2014,
University, Edinburgh, UK.
Download from: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/806942/1/Heather-Cairns-Lee-.pdf
This working paper reports on a longitudinal inductive study that seeks to elicit and explore
the naturally occurring metaphors and implicit leadership theories (ILT) used by leaders of
business to describe their own leadership and development. The research comprises 30 leaders in
international business and combines a novel research method using Clean Language to elicit
and explore metaphors with drawings to depict the metaphorical landscapes and implicit
leadership theories (ILT) described in the interviews.
(2011). Pervasive Media Arts: Participation, Practice and Well-Being. Well-Being 2011: First International Conference Exploring the Multi-dimensions of Well-being,
18–19 July. Birmingham City University and the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA).
This paper introduces two arts-based action
research doctoral projects that facilitate shared personal narratives
discovered by walking in the landscape. One of the projects, Living
Voices – a portable woodland walk featuring narratives from people who
are living with the diagnosis of dementia – introduces the therapeutic
approach of Clean Language within the recording process, and uses
metaphor to elicit another layer of narrative, rich in textual imagery:
each individual’s story is represented by a specific tree.
(2012). Pervasive Media, Commons and Connections: Research as Reflective Studio Practice at Banff, Reviews in Cultural Theory
2.3 Special Issue: On the Commons. De Montfort University, Leicester UK Doctoral thesis: research by practice. Institute of Creative Technologies.
Calderwood, J. A. (2017). Pervasive media and eudaimonia: transdisciplinary research by practice. De Montfort University, Leicester UK. Doctoral thesis: research by practice. Institute of Creative Technologies.
(2015). Sharing tacit knowledge of students with their training teacher. Presented at SGEM 2015 International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts.
Education and Educational Research. Pragmatism and Education. muni.cz/research/publications/1301031
de Bryas, Sophie
The aim of the research is to identify which factors facilitated the sharing of tacit knowledge between student teacher and training teacher, what brings sharing
of tacit knowledge to student teacher, and what brings sharing of tacit
knowledge to training teacher. It
will be illustrated on data which are gained by in-depth interview that
is inspired by method called 'clean language'.
(2005). Modélisation symbolique : apprendre et transmettre (Etude ethnométhodologique), Université Paris-VIII, DESS Ethnométhodologie et Informatique
Divett, Diane R. T.
(2004). Refocussing: The Development and Definition of the Theory and Its Therapeutic Practice with Critical Analysis and Illustrative Case Studies. PhD thesis, University of Auckland, School of Education,
Refocussing is a clinical approach which uses David Grove's Clean Language and his metaphor therapy within the context of Christian theology.
Doyle, N., Tosey, P. & Walker, C.
(2010). Systemic Modelling: Installing Coaching as a Catalyst for Organisational Learning, The Association for Management Education and Development – e-Organisations & People
, Winter 2010, Vol. 17. No. 4
Doyle, N. & McDowall, A
We introduce the background to our organisational coaching process, Systemic Modelling,
outlining where it comes from, how it works as a cornerstone of organisational development work and some
practical examples. We present a case study with one corporate client to illustrate how it can be
implemented, plus the results of our first evaluation. We use stories, metaphors and examples to track the
shift in thinking of a group of senior managers from a silo-mentality, blame or defence culture to networking,
collaboration and creativity. We conclude with a reflection on the whole process and the impact team
coaching had on organisational learning.
(2015). Is coaching an effective adjustment for dyslexic adults?
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice
, Published online: 25 Aug 2015. dx.doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2015.1065894
Includes some of the first
peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of coaching models such as
‘symbolic modelling’ that assist coachees in developing positive models
of their experience. For example, the coaching question ‘When you are
organised at your best, it’s like what’ (Walker, 2014) leads to a review
of the scenarios and contexts in which the coachee can organise.
The study involved 95 dyslexic coachees who, along with 41 line
managers, provided independent ratings of work performance both before
and after the coaching was conducted. The results showed a statistically
significant improvement in the most common five areas of work
performance selected by coachees and their managers in the introductory
(2009) MSc thesis: An exploratory study on the use of metaphor on creative cognition, University of Leicester, School of Psychology
(2015). Design Tasks Beyond the Studio. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers
. Volume 1 pp.93-108 Editors: Robin Vande Zande, Erik Bohemia & Ingvild Digranes.
This paper presents a research project that investigates whether the design thinking and problem solving used in the studio can also improve students’ levels of academic literacy. Using the ‘Fishscale of Academicness’ that likens texts to fish and Lawley & Tompkins’ Symbolic Modelling process, students verbalise in group discussions their
understanding of what makes a source academic, and
at the same time to physicalise them as a visual representation. This paper analyses the metaphors student groups developed, and discovers that allowing students to design their own personalised (and visual) metaphors turned the abstract experience of analysing secondary sources into something more concrete.
(2014). From loss and grief to game design
working with the experience of bereaved mothers. CHIPlay 2014 - Participatory Design for Serious Game Design
Draws on the work of Lakoff & Johnson  and Lawley & Tompkins  in a PhD project at the Austrian Academy of Sciences, University of Vienna, Austria to answer the questions: "How can the experience of loss and mourning be communicated through digital game design? How can the voices of grieving people be made tangible through game mechanics, rules, and game fiction?"
(2012). Cutting Edge Metaphors, Journal of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland
Number 37, September 2012, pp. 26-29.
Hyer, Lee & Brandsma, Jeffrey M
(1997). EMDR Minus Eye Movements Equals Good Psychotherapy, Journal of Traumatic Stress
, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1997, pp.515-522
Janssen SKH, Mol APJ, van Tatenhove JPM & Otter HS
(2014). The role of knowledge in greening flood protection. Lessons from the Dutch case study future Afsluitdijk, Ocean & Coastal Management,
Volume 95, July 2014, pp. 219–232. sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09645691/95
"The formal interviews had a semi-open character and were based on the clean language approach"
(2014). Why, when and how do qualified psychotherapists from a range of modalities make use of client-generated metaphors using Clean Language? A research thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of Awaken School of Outcome Oriented Psychotherapies Ltd. for the Postgraduate Diploma in Outcome-oriented Psychotherapies, 16 December 2014.
Konat, B & Juszczyk, K
(2015). Multimodal communication in career coaching sessions: lexical and gestural corpus study. Empirical Methods in Language Studies
(2017). Metaphor, Embodiment and Tacit Learning. Chapter 2 in Becoming a Teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge
. V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský et al. Brno:Masaryk University, pp.106-114.
(2017). Clean Language Interviewing: Making qualitative research interviews verifiable. Chapter 3 in Becoming a Teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge
. V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský et. al (Eds.) Brno: Masaryk University, pp.115-122.
Lawley, J. & Linder-Pelz, S.
This chapter examines how an interviewer’s use of linguistic structures, such as metaphor, presupposition and framing can unintentionally influence the content of an interviewee’s answers, and how that may compromise the authenticity and trustworthiness of the data collected (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). These concerns are addressed by a description of the Clean Language interview method, and a method for checking the validity of research interviews. Finally, there is a discussion of the relevance of Clean Language interviewing to tacit knowledge research.
(2016). Evidence of competency: exploring coach, coachee and expert evaluations of coaching, Coaching:
An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice
Download a free preprint version: Lawley&Linder-Pelz_CIJTRP_preprint_03_May_2016.pdf
Lawley, J. & Manea, A. I.
coach training and assessment implies that coaching skills and
effectiveness are closely related. But who is best placed to determine
‘effectiveness’? This paper reports on research that examined how
closely the evaluations of coachees, expert-assessors and coaches
correspond. The research used a novel multi-method approach to
triangulation including Clean Language interviewing (CLI) to explore
coachees’ experience and evaluation of coaching. Assessor and coachee
evaluations of the same coaching session were often at variance, both in
terms of descriptive evaluations and numerical ratings. This suggests
that compliance – or not – to a coaching methodology does not
necessarily guarantee coachee satisfaction. While coach and coachee
ratings showed no clear differences, in every triad coaches rated their
own coaching considerably better than did the assessor. Practical
implications include the need for multiple sources of evidence to
establish coach effectiveness and certification standards, the need for
coaches to develop calibration skills so they can be more responsive to
the coachees’ in-session evaluations, and the usefulness of CLI together
with established tools in evaluation research.
(2017). The Use of Clean Space to Facilitate a “Stuck” Client – a Case Study, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
Lawley J. Meyer M., Meese R., Sullivan W. & Tosey P.
This first-of-its-kind academic paper consists of a case study of a spatially-based therapeutic approach, Clean Space, which facilitates a client through a “stuck” state. The study situates “clean” approaches within the context of mental space and metaphor research, outlines the method, and provides a full transcript of a session, explanatory commentary and client feedback.
(2010) More than a Balancing Act?: 'Clean Language' as an innovative method for exploring work-life balance
, October 2010, University of Surrey and Clean Change Company, ISBN: 978-1-84469-022-0.
Lawley, J. & Tompkins, P.
first funded research project to explore Clean Language, research
partners, the Clean Change Company and the University of Surrey,
collaborated to test the use of Clean Language as the principal research
tool and ‘discovery medium’ for exploring interviewees’ metaphors for
‘work-life balance’ (WLB). The purpose was three-fold: (1)
To explore how Clean Language could generate insights into the
experience of individual participants, and into understandings of the
nature of WLB generally, through its capacity for eliciting
participant-generated (autogenic) metaphors; (2) To test the application of Clean Language as a research methodology; (3) To pave the way for further research into, or utilising, Clean Language.
(2011). Metaphor, the Body and Health, The CAPA Quarterly,
Issue One, February. Journal of the Counsellors and Psychotherapists Association of NSW Inc. ISSN 1835-937X
Lawley, J., Tompkins, P. & Manea, A. I.
(2018). The Analysis of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy from a Clean Language Perspective., Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
Download full article: jep.ro/images/pdf/cuprins_reviste/82_art_1.pdf This paper compares and analyses Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT)
through the paradigm of Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling at three levels:
intention, process and practice. The aim is to identify specific
similarities and differences between the two approaches in order for
practitioners of both to mutually benefit. ...
[NOTE: As well as the
specific findings, this paper points to a new methodology for how CL &
SyM can be used to analyse and learn from other approaches.]
Linder-Pelz, S. & Lawley, J.
(2015). Using Clean Language to explore the subjectivity of coachees' experience and outcomes. International Coaching Psychology Review
, 10(2):161-174 September 2015 ISSN: 1750-2764. http://shop.bps.org.uk/publications/publication-by-series/international-coaching-psychology-review/international-coaching-psychology-review-vol-10-no-2-september-2015.html
Download a free preprint version: Linder-Pelz_Lawley-ICPR_preprint_15_Jun_2015.pdf
This paper contributes methodologically and substantively to understanding how coachees experience and evaluate coaching. First, we explore the use of ‘Clean Language’ as a phenomenological approach to coaching research, including the eliciting and analysing of data into findings and insights for coaches and coach trainers. Second, we explore the nature of events, effects, evaluations and outcomes reported by six coachees after single coaching sessions. The interviews elicited detailed information on many aspects of coaching without the interviewer introducing any topics. The transcribed interviews were analysed
using a form of thematic analysis within a realist/essentialist paradigm
(Braun & Clarke, 2006). Coachees emphasised the coaches’ style of repeating back, pacing, setting goals and questioning, maintaining the focus of the session, confronting and challenging, as well as their responsiveness (or lack of it). Increased self-awareness was mentioned by all coachees.
(2011). The Use of Metaphor in Counselling and Qualitative Research Interviews. Assignment three of a Professional Doctorate in Counselling, School of
Education, Faculties of Humanities, University of Manchester
Download: Lloyd-Metaphor_in_Counselling_and_Qualitative_Research_Interviews.pdfLloyd, Jonathan
The use of metaphor in therapy is relatively common, although its
specific conscious use as seen in Grove’s work continues to be unknown
in the counselling world. This paper has also highlighted the possible
use of Clean Language and metaphors in the research domain to enhance
the richness of resultant data. ... Rather than looking at the hermeneutics, the meaning of the text, I
want to investigate how much meaning is created by the questions posed. ... The profound findings that Clean Language, focusing on
memory and metaphor, can increase the resultant amount of meaning by a
factor of five.
The Therapeutic Use of Metaphor: A Heuristic Study. A thesis submitted to The University of Manchester
for the degree of Professional Doctorate in the Faculty of Humanities.
Download: Lloyd2015-PhDthesis-TherapeuticUseofMetaphor.pdfContinue to Authors M-Z
This research was designed to explore the experience and understanding of counsellors’ and psychotherapists’ engagement with metaphors in the therapeutic process. The aim is to reflect on the experience of therapists involved in therapeutic metaphors from differing perspectives. It appears that the use of metaphor in therapy is pervasive and offers an opportunity for therapeutic change. The consideration of the construction of metaphors and their mutual development may be useful for therapists to consider. This research highlights the need for more investigation with regard to client perspectives, the environmental impacts on metaphors in therapy and who the therapist and client stand for metaphorically for each other. [NB. Includes plenty of references to David Grove's work]
Publications that make use of David Grove's ideas
2. Academic and professional publications and research –Authors M-Z
Manea, Alexandru I. & Barbu, Ioana A.
(2017). Mental Space meets Psychology – a new Paradigm and Approach to Psychotherapy, Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
, 20 (3), 37-43.
This paper outlines the basic concepts of mental space representations, its primary concepts and the connection to psychology and psychotherapy. Also included are the descriptions of three mental space based psychotherapies [including Clean Space] and their applications. A comprehensive list of references containing case-studies and researches is also provided.
Manea, Alexandru I. & Barbu, Ioana A.
(2018). Psihoterapiile Spațiale O abordare emergentă, ArtTE - Revista de terapii creativ-expresive și dezvoltare personală unificatoare
, volumul 5, numarul 8.
Article about Mental Space Psychology as an emergent approach with a section dedicated to Clean Space published in "ArtTE - The magazine of creative-expressive therapies and Personal Development".
Martin, John N.T.
(2007). Book Review: Metaphors in Mind: Transformation Through Symbolic Modelling, by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins, Metaphor and Symbol
Download prepress version: Martin_2007-Metaphors_in_Mind_Review.pdf
Martin, John N.T. & Sullivan, Wendy
Conversations at a recent conference suggested that the work it describes is not yet well known to metaphor researchers. Perhaps this reflects the gulf between the practitioner/trainer world of shared experiences and face-to-face contact versus the academic world of journal articles and statistics. But if I had a research student working on metaphor, experience of Lawley and Tompkins' work would be a key part of the basic training because of its striking capacity to bring our internal metaphorical worlds to life.
(2007). "... and good systems practice is [pause] like [pause] what?": 'Clean Language' and 'Metaphor Landscapes' as potential tools in Systems Practice. A revised version of the paper presented at the 11th United Kingdom Systems Society (UKSS) International Conference,
Oxford University, 3-5 September 2007, Joined up thinking for a joined up world. Revised version published in Systemist
Vol 29, No 3, Nov 2007.
Download: academia.edu/18541536/ or cleanchange.co.uk/cleanlanguage/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/JNTM-WS-Final.pdf
Checkland has referred to the primacy of cognitive processes, and the importance of self-reflection and phenomenology in modern Systems thinking. This paper takes that position at its face value and describes a way of reflecting on one’s sense-making cognitive processes that is well established in its own domain, but not widely known to Systems practitioners. It was developed as ‘clean language’ by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989) and subsequently codified as ‘symbolic modelling’ by James Lawley and Penny Tompkins (Lawley & Tompkins, 2000).
McGrath, Maureen (1998). A Study in the Use of Symbolism in Counselling. MA thesis: University of Durham, Centre for Studies in Counselling.
Munsoor, Mohamed Safiullah (2017) Knowing Thyself: A model of spiritual leadership and self-development: the case study of a spiritual order in Malaysia. Department of Aqida and Islamic Thought, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Malaysia. (Doctoral thesis)
(2009). Beyond Narrative: Modelling Metaphor in Environmental Discourse. MSc thesis:Cranfield University, School of Applied Sciences innovation and Design for Sustainability
(2011). The Application of Metaphors in Psychotherapy, a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the Masters in Research in Speech, Language & Cognition, University College London
, Division of Psychology & Language
(2012). The Use of Figurative Language in Psychotherapy, University College London, Working Papers in Linguistics 2012
, pp. 75-93
(2014). Metaphor in Psychotherapeutic Discourse: Implications for Utterance. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics
, 50(1), 2014, pp. 75–97.
Download from: academia.edu/6750568/
Nehyba, Jan & Lanc, Jakub
This paper examines figurative expressions in two passages from attested psychotherapy exchanges where explicit use is made of metaphor for therapeutic purposes and discusses the use of Clean Language in this context.
(2013). Koncept čistého jazyka v psychoterapii (The Concept of Clean Language in Psychotherapy), Psychoterapie: praxe – inspirace – konfrontace
, 7(2) 123-133 Brno: Masaryk university.
Preprint paper: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/335/1/Koncept-cIisteIho-jazyka-v-psychoterapii/
Nehyba, J., & Svojanovský, P.
The article introduces 'clean language' or a 'clean approach' - one of the post-modern oriented
therapeutic approaches, building on the ideas of the late David Grove.
The way of facilitating the therapeutic session is specific in the 'cleanness' from the therapists conscious and unconscious contents it
strives for in the interaction. This allows the client to immerse
himself deeper in his own mind-body processes and their organization.
After the theoretical background, the article focuses on the practical
example of how is possible to 'let emerge' metaphors, self-reflections,
insights or 'aha!' moments for the client. In the concluding part, the
text offers a discussion of the principles of the clean approach and the
ways it can be inspiring for therapists.
(2017). Clean language as a data collection tool. Chapter 5 in V. Švec, J. Nehyba & P. Svojanovský, et al., Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge
(pp. 130-147). Brno: Masaryk University.
Download at: Nehyba&Svojanovsky2017-Clean_language_as_a_data_collection_tool.pdf
This chapter explains and evaluates how the data collection method entitled Clean Language was implemented in our research. In the context of pedagogical sciences, it is a new way of interviewing, which helps to gather data as closely as possible from first person (Searle, 1992; Varela, 1999). We explain how we understand the term Clean Language and how we interpret it, and then move to the actual analysis of how we used this method in practice, i.e. in conducting the research interviews.
(2013). Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?, Creative Education
2013. Vol.4, No.7A2, 32-36 Published Online July 2013 in SciRes
This paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using metaphor as a tool to support meta-learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors. All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.
(2014). Teaching and learning pedagogies to enhance practice in Higher Education: a practitioner's perspective. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Liverpool John Moores University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Liverpool John Moores University
, Faculty of Education, Health and Community.
Nixon, Sarah & Walker, Caitlin
This mixed method approach studied the enhancement of the student experience through creating conditions
where excellent learning can occur both individually and through working
in communities of practice. Includes the application of Clean
Language and Systemic Modelling.
(2009). Personal Development Planning - Inspiring Capability, chapter 11 in Enhancing Student Centred Learning in Business and Management, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism
, edited by John Buswell and Nina Becket for HLST, Oxford Brookes University, published by Threshold Press.
PDP has been an area of interest within
the Sport Development programme at Liverpool John Moores University. The
chapter begins with the context for the project and what we wanted to
happen. Then outlines the philosophy underpinning our approach and
introduce key features including the notion of autogenic metaphors for
learning, clean (metaphor-free) questions, clean set-up and clean
feedback. It continues with how we went about engaging staff and
students, some challenges, learning and the impact so far, and then ends
with a summary of how we will do things differently in the coming year year
Nixon, S. & Walker, C.
(2009). Modelling the curriculum through metaphors: one programme's approach, CETL Journal: Innovations in Practice,
As part of exploring Personal Development Planning (PDP) across the Sport Development programme we decided to gather the views of staff on the programme to see if we could agree on a common model, philosophy and message. This approach, called Metaphors at Work (Walker 2007), allows individuals and groups to explore their own thoughts and perceptions on a subject, in this case the degree programme, through the development of metaphors [using Clean Language] and their associated meaning. The process has a number of stages which are documented in this paper with the overall objective being to get to a jointly shared view amongst staff.
(1999). Imagery and Metaphor,
part of the OU Business and Management postgraduate course B822
: Creativity, Innovation and Change produced by John Martin
. The course includes three videos related to David Grove's work featuring Caitlin Walker
: Engaging the Imagination
; Group Metaphor Development
; and Clean Language
How do you address problematic issues at
work? This [programme] reveals more
creative ways to solve problems, other than relying on rational
techniques such as brainstorming and lateral thinking. Employees at a
small software company are shown how to access their unconscious minds
using the power of imagery, associative thinking, [Clean Language] and
metaphor, to find
solutions and creative approaches to their work. Meanwhile at a
Neuro-Linguistic Programming seminar, participants learn to use
metaphor for practical problem-solving. The
facilitators also comment and discuss their techniques and
observations, including the significance of gesture, body language and
breathing in the sessions.
(2004). Practical Thinking: an online course in perception, ideas and action,
T185, part of the Technology Faculty’s 'Relevant
Knowledge' programme (2004-2006, no longer available) produced by John Martin
This ten-week course is presented online and explores the practical
role of metaphor in shaping and transforming various areas of imagery,
thinking and communication. Application areas include the concept development
stages of policy-making and design, the generation of ideas, visualising
implementation issues, the communication of complex project ideas, problem-solving,
resolving differences, and so on. T185 draws heavily on the ideas of cognitive scientists such as Lakoff
and Johnson, classic writers on creative problem solving such as George
Prince, management writers such as Gareth Morgan and practitioners such
as Lawley and Tompkins.
Owen, Ian R.
(1989). Beyond Carl Rogers: The work of David Grove, Journal of Interprofessional Care
, 4(4), 186-196. informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/13561828909046386
Download from: researchgate.net/publication/232036252
Owen, Ian R.
This article is written with the belief that psychotherapy can be
enriched by the addition of ideas from anthropology and holistic health
care. This paper introduces the psychotherapy of David Grove. It re-emphasizes the need for therapists, or healers of
all kinds, to be aware of the language, therapeutic structure and
experience of clients. Clients' experiences are more fully understood
in the context of greater awareness of the inter-relationships of
language, experience, belief, enculturation and communication. Such
awareness is posited as being crucial to holistic practitioners.
The case for
a phenomenological therapy is put forward.
(1996). Clean Language: A linguistic-experiential phenomenology, in
A.-T. Tymieniecka (Ed.) Analecta Husserliana
, Vol. 48. pp. 271-297, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Pickerden, Anita M Download from: researchgate.net/publication/300670475 In this study [David Grove's] clean language is applied to make a reproducible method for phenomenologists as this new procedure adheres to many phenomenological first principles. The method reveals the place of metaphor and metonymy as possible connections between language and lived experience.
(2013) How do older workers in the fire & Rescue service deal with work life balance issues as they plan for, approach and transition through retirement? Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Leicester
Pieśkiewicz, B. & Kołodkiewicz
(2011). Metafora w coachingu: zastosowanie metody Clean Coaching w pracy z organizacjami [Metaphor in coaching: Application of Clean Coaching method in working with organisations]. In: Czarkowska, L. (ed.), Coaching jako katalizator rozwoju organizacji [Coaching as a catalyst in orgnizational growth]. Warszawa: New Dawn. Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2009). Clean Language and Metaphor: The Work of David Grove in Imagery for Pain Relief: A scientifically grounded guidebook for clinicians.
pp. 206-224 London: Routledge.
Pincus, D. & Sheikh, A.A.
(2011) David Grove's Metaphor Therapy. Imagination, Cognition and Personality
Download from: journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/IC.30.3.d
Within the ever-expanding list of approaches to psychotherapy, there is a tendency to overlook deep imagery approaches. The current article reports on one such metaphor-based therapy developed by David Grove (Grove & Panzer, 1989). The approach is analyzed within the context of mainstream contemporary psychotherapy in general, the state of empirical understanding of common processes to psychotherapy, and in relation to other deep imagery-based approaches to therapy. Next, a step-by-step description of the techniques used within metaphor therapy are presented, along with a case example demonstrating the use of these techniques on a case involving pain symptoms. Finally, it is argued that deep imagery approaches in general, and Grove's approach in particular, may provide a means for greater theoretical integration within integrative healthcare.
Pole, Nick & Cadney, Peter
(2016) ‘Very, Very Traumatic’ Working with Trauma with Clean Language and Shiatsu. Shiatsu Society Journal (UK)
, Winter 2016, Issue 140.
Rain, T., Lawley, J. & Henwood, S.
(2016) From coaching and therapy to research interviewing: reflections and recommendations from practice. Acuity
, April 2016 Volume 5.
Rees, J. & Manea, A.I.
This article shares the personal experiences of one practitioner (Thora Rain) who made a successful transition to researcher. It
focuses on the adjustments practitioners need to make to become high-quality researchers. It also draws on the longer experience of two of the paper authors (James Lawley and
Suzanne Henwood) and offers some guidance to those thinking about taking on a research
role, mentioning clean interviewing as a "helpful methodology".
(2016). The Use of Clean Language and Metaphor in Helping Clients Overcoming Procrastination. Journal of Experiential Psychotherapy
. 19 (3).
Download from: jep.ro/images/pdf/cuprins_reviste/75_art_5.pdf
Robinson (Foreman), Fe
In psychotherapy, coaching and personal development, problems are often framed in terms of metaphor. For example, procrastination might be described as a “mysterious” force, holding the client back from creating the happy, fulfilled life he often dreams of. Clean Language, created by the late David Grove between the 1980s and the 1990s, is a process designed to use such client metaphors as an engine for positive change. In this article, we show how it works in a typical one-on-one session.
(2013). How does exploring metaphorical representations of organisational change at its best
affect levels of well-being in an ambiguous and rapidly changing public sector work
environment? Paper presented to The Third International Neuro-Linguistic
Programming Research Conference
, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July
Rusch, Doris C.
A shorter version was published in Acuity
, 2013(4), 104-126
Full paper at: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/332/
This study found that exploring metaphorical representations of
organisational change at its best correlated significantly with
increasing well-being during a period of organisational change;
potentially mitigating deleterious effects and causing a
small well-being uplift. Group
and one-to-one interventions showed similar well-being correlations
over a three-month period. However, the nature of the effect was different,
with insights and positive affect the prime outcome for the one-to-one
intervention, and workshops additionally leading to experimentation with
new skills. There are four implications of this study for clean
language practitioners. Firstly, clean language and
symbolic modelling interventions are suitable as part of the change
management mix to support employee well-being. Secondly, metaphorical
interventions have effects over time, undertaking interventions over a
period is recommended. Thirdly, creating an open, safe environment for
exploration and insight is key to supporting well-being. Finally,
teaching clean language will enable application of learning into other
contexts. Using one-to-one interventions may require more sessions to
lead to behavioural change.
(2017) Making Deep Games – Designing Games with Meaning and Purpose.
Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group.
This book offers a perspective into how to make games that tackle the whole bandwidth of the human experience, games that teach us something about ourselves enable thought-provoking emotionally rich experiences and promote personal and social change. Dr Rusch, Ass. Prof. at DePaul University says "the book is strongly influenced by Metaphor Research and Symbolic Modeling". See especially section 3.3.1.
Sanders, J., de Vries, R., Besseling, S., & Nieuwenhuijze, M.
(2018) 'Such a waste'–Conflicting communicative roles of Dutch midwifery students in childbirth decision making - Midwifery
(online 21 June 2018, in press)
In-depth interviews and a focus group with seventeen Dutch midwifery
students were conducted and analyzed applying a grounded theory
approach. The interviewer asked neutral, non-judgmental questions, using clean language (Tompkins and Lawley, 1997).
(2013). "So What's a Meta For?" InterAction - The Journal of Solution Focus in Organisations
, Volume 5, Number 2, November 2013, pp. 35-53(19), SFCT.
(2014). Towards a Model of Clean Supervision. The Listener: A journal for coaches
No.6 October 2014.
Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P.
(Eds.). (2016). STUDENTI UČITELSTVÍ MEZI TACITNÍMI A EXPLICITNÍMI ZNALOSTMI
Brno: Masarykova Univerzita MUNI press. ISBN:978-80-210-8428-5 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8429-2016
The book (in Czech) discusses: metaphors, sharing knowledge, subjective tacit theories of teaching students teachers, unexpected circumstances and Clean Language research interviewing.
Chapter authors: Vlastimil Švec, Jan Nehyba, Petr Svojanovský, James Lawley, Radim Šíp, Eva Minaříková, Blanka Pravdová, Barbora Šimůnková, Jan Slavík.
Free Download: https://munispace.muni.cz/index.php/munispace/catalog/book/887
English transaltion Švec, V., Nehyba, J. & Svojanovský, P. (Eds.) (2017). Becoming a teacher: The dance between tacit and explicit knowledge. Brno: Masaryk University. ISBN:978-80-210-8605-0 doi:10.5817/CZ.MUNI.M210-8605-2017
Download free from: http://munispace.muni.cz/book?id=887 (click "English")
The book focuses on pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge in the second
stage of their studies. It deals with the
theoretical background and highlights the need for a radical turn in the
methodology when we want to explore this concept. Drawing on this, a
qualitative method of data collection which was used in the presented
research, so called clean language, is described in detail. The
empirical part of the book presents studies concerning topics connected
to pre-service teachers’ tacit knowledge – unexpected situations,
student teachers’ beliefs or explicit and tacit knowledge sharing.
(2010). How Clean Is Our Language? Training and Development in Australia
, Vol. 37, No. 4, Jul 2010: 36-37.
(2005). Legacy of War: Experiences of members of the Ulster Defence
, Conflict Trauma Resource Centre, Belfast.
van Helsdingen, Annemiek & Lawley, James
(2012). Zuiver belevingsonderzoek: het vermijden van onbedoelde beïnvloeding in kwalitatief onderzoek, Kwalon, 17(3):43-50.
Download from: tijdschriftkwalon.nl/inhoud/tijdschrift_artikel/KW-17-3-43/
Translated from the original Dutch version as Modelling
Shared Reality: avoiding unintended influence in qualitative research, Kwalon Vol 3, October 2012. (Journal of the Netherlands Association for Qualitative Research).
Available in English at: cleanlanguage.co.uk/articles/articles/328/
Modelling Shared Reality is a new qualitative research methodology which
is rooted in Clean Language and Symbolic Modelling. It minimizes
undesired influence of the researcher during all stages of the research:
design, interviews, analysis and reporting. The methodology is action
oriented: both the process and the results function as a catalyst for
action, behavioural and organizational change.
(2011). Aligning identity in legal services firms: Do senior partners in legal services firms possess the core characteristics of identity to work in alignment within the firm?
Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for award of the degree of Doctor of Business Administration, University of Portsmouth, June 2011.
Tompkins, Penny, & James Lawley
(2006). Coaching with Metaphor, in Cutting
Edge Coaching Techniques Handbook, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, Coaching at Work,
Tompkins, Penny, Wendy Sullivan & James Lawley
(2005). Tangled Spaghetti in My Head: Making use of metaphor, Therapy Today, Journal of the British Association for Counselling and Pychotherapy
, October 2005.
(2011). 'Symbolic Modelling' as an innovative phenomenological method in HRD research: the work-life balance project, presented at the 12th International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe
, University of Gloucestershire, 25th–27th May 2011.
Tosey, Paul Download from: epubs.surrey.ac.uk/7135/
This project applied symbolic modelling in order to elicit the naturally
occurring metaphors of six mid-career managers in the UK, relating to
the way they experienced work-life balance. The analysis yielded a
unique metaphor landscape for each manager. A key finding is that,
although the ‘work-life balance’ metaphor is widespread, not one of the
interviewees’ main metaphors overtly involved ‘a balance’. However, a
number of their metaphors implied some form of balancing, for example
‘juggling’, ‘surfing’, or being in ‘equality’. The study illustrates
potential enhancements that symbolic modelling and the clean language questioning
technique can bring to phenomenological interviewing and analysis in
HRD research. The results also have implications for the understanding
of work-life balance, and for managers and human resource professionals
who are dealing with work-life balance issues in the workplace.
(2014). Clean Language in Research Interviews. Rapport 40
(2015). And what kind of question is that? Thinking about the function of questions in qualitative interviewing. Chapter 14 in Handbook of Research Methods on Human Resource Development
. Editors, Saunders, M. N. K. & Tosey, P. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Look inside the book: amazon.com/Handbook-Research-Development-Handbooks-Management/dp/1781009236Tosey, P., Lawley, J. and Meese, R.
This chapter explores qualitative interviewing, drawing from a project that investigated managers' metaphors of work-life balance, informed by a practice called Clean Language. The chapter highlights the function of questions in interviews and considers how to design and ask questions in order to elicit data of good quality.
(2014). Eliciting Metaphor through Clean Language: an Innovation in Qualitative Research, British Journal of Management
. Vol. 25, 629–646.
doi: 10.1111/1467-8551.12042. Purchase at: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8551.12042/abstract
Download a free copy of preprint version: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/807943/
Tosey, P., Sullivan, W. & Meyer, M.
This paper shows how an innovative method of questioning called Clean
Language can enhance the authenticity and rigour of interview-based
qualitative research. We investigate the specific potential of Clean
Language as a method for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors in
order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world;
despite substantial interest in metaphors in the field of organizational
and management research there is a lack of explicit, systematic methods
for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors. We also demonstrate how
Clean Language can improve qualitative research more widely by
addressing the propensity for researchers inadvertently to introduce
extraneous metaphors into an interviewee's account at both data
collection and interpretation stages. Data are presented from a
collaborative academic–practitioner project in which Clean Language was
used as a method of interviewing to elicit the metaphors of six
mid-career managers, relating to the way they experienced work–life
balance. The first contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the
potential of Clean Language for eliciting naturally occurring metaphors
in order to provide in-depth understanding of a person's symbolic world.
The second contribution is to show how Clean Language can enhance the
rigour and authenticity of interview-based qualitative research more
(2013). Clean Sources: Six Metaphors a Minute? University of Surrey ISBN: 978-1-84469-029-9.
(2006). Breathing in Blue by Clapton Duck Pond, Counselling Children and Young People
, British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy, Dec 2006, pp.2-5.
Walsh, B. , Nixon, S. , Walker, C. and Doyle, N.
(2015). Using a Clean Feedback Model to Facilitate the Learning Process. Creative Education
, 6, 953-960.
Download from file.scirp.org/Html/6-6302593_57272.htm
Ward, C., Tosey, P. & Cairns-Lee, H.
In this article we examine the “clean feedback” model developed by
Walker and Doyle (2006) and explore its impact on the learning
experiences of a purposeful sample of eleven beginning physical
education teachers. The
findings indicate that the model has improved the students’ ability to
give and receive both positive and negative feedback and to improve
students self awareness and understanding of their own learning and
(2013). 'A Strange Route to Get Here': Metaphors of Leadership Development and Leadership. Presented at 14th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe
, 5-7 June 2013: HRD in Turbulent Seas-Continued Global Economic Uncertainty: Challenges and Opportunities. University of Brighton, Brighton Business School, UK.
(2012) “Do you see what I see?” Coaching at Work
. May/June | Vol 7 Issue 3
Wing, Suzanne Brown
(1994) David Grove Metaphor Therapy and traumatic memory resolution with incarcerated sex offenders
. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, The Union Institute & University, Ohio. March 1994.
3. Conference Presentations (without published papers)
de Gandt, Jennifer
introduction to Transformation through Symbolic Modelling'. The 2° Conference on Brief Strategic and Systemic Therapy' Nov 9-13,
2005. Abstract published in Brief Strategic and Systemic Therapy European Review
, No. 2, 2005.
Download abstract: www.bssteuropeanreview.org/articoli
'The power of personal metaphor: A meeting with David Grove'. Researching and Applying Metaphor (RAAM) Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland, from 2-4 May 2013
Doyle, Nancy & Walker Caitlin
Doyle N, Walker C, Nixon, S, Walsh B & Mitchell B
'Clean Language: a methodology for individual systems and systems of individuals' presented to European Coaching Psychology Conference
in Edinburgh on 12 December 2013, hosted by British Psychological Society, Special Group in Coaching Psychology.Download slides: Doyle_&_Walker_Clean_Language_presentation_for_BPS-SGCP.pdf
'Cleaning up the 'F' word'. A paper presented to the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Conference
, September 2007.A rewritten version 'Cleaning up the 'F' word in coaching' appeared in Rapport, Nov 2008.
The pristine noun: The search for the idyllic time when you are one
with the world and the world is one with you. A keynote address
presented at the 23rd Annual Conference of the American Association for
the Study of Mental Imagery, Minneapolis, September 25–28, 2003.
Juszczyk, Konrad & Mickiewicz, Adam
'Participatory Sense-Making in Clean Coaching Conversations'. The 14th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference: Linguistic Diversity and Cognitive Linguistics
. 10-14 July 2017 Tartu, Estonia. Abstract: juszczy-Mickiewicz2017-Participatory_Sense_Making_in_Clean_Coaching_Conversations.pdf
Our initial results suggest that coach’s
verbal repetitions increase the number of metaphorical expressions generated by the client,
whereas coach’s gestural repetitions lead to shared mental representations of topic and content
of the conversation of the coach and the coachee. Therefore, our data provides evidence that
participatory sensemaking and client’s development of multimodal metaphor can be supported
by coach’s clean coaching questions with specificrepetitions.
Karolia, Mohammed & Burton, Rob
'Metaphors we teach by: An exploration into how HE lecturers reflect on and
conceptualise their experiences of teaching via the use of clean language interviewing
model of exploring metaphor'.
The Third International Neuro-Linguistic Programming Research
, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July 2012.Download: abstract-Karolia-Burton-2012.pdf
Meese, R, Tosey, P, Lawley, J, Sullivan, W & Meyer, M (2012)
'Symbolic Modelling as an innovative phenomenological method in NLP research: the work-life
balance project'. The Third International Neuro-Linguistic
Programming Research Conference
, Hertfordshire University, 6-7th July
2012. Presented by Wendy Sullivan.Download: abstract-Meese-Tosey-Lawley-Sullivan-Meyer-2012.pdf
"The Application of Metaphors in
Psychotherapy". 5th Symposium on Intercultural, Cognitive and Social
Pragmatics EPICS V. 14-16 March, 2012
have found theoretical support for the idea that metaphors occur with
relatively high frequency during therapy since they enable the
expression of difficult feelings and half-formed thoughts. I discuss
this in terms of Relevance Theory, in particular, the notion of weak
implicatures. Adopting the RT framework, we can also make predictions
for how metaphors should be used in therapy, noting that the approach
known as ‘Clean Language’ (Sullivan & Rees, 2008) seems to be in
line with these theoretically grounded suggestions.
Nixon, S & Walker, C
'When you are learning at your best you are like what?' Paper presented at META: From PDP to CPD. University of Gloucester.
Nixon, S & Walker, C
you are learning at your best you are like what? Connecting the student
learner through PDP'. Paper presented at the Learning to be Professional
Through a Life-wide Curriculum, Surrey University (31st March – 2nd April).
Nixon, S & Walker, C
you are learning at your best you are like what? Connecting the student
learner through PDP'. Paper presented at the HEA conference (30 June-2
Švec, V., Pravdová, B., Svojanovský, P. & Nehyba, J.
„Čistý jazyk“ jako výzkumný nástroj pro detekci tacitních znalostí studentů učitelství. Konference české
asociace pedagogického výzkumu
"Clean Language" as a research tool for the detection of the tacit knowledge of student teachers. Presented at Czech Educational Research Association Conference
, 2014. Abstract (in Czech and English): muni.cz/research/publications/1200048 Using
a single case study design, one student teacher was investigated. The
data was collected through five in-depth interviews that made use of the
method of 'clean language'.
Svojanovský, P. & Nehyba, J.
'Manifestations of Tacit Knowledge in the Metaphors of the Student.' Paper presented at 17th Biennial International Study Association of Teachers and Teaching Conference
(ISATT). University of Auckland. 17 Aug 2015.
Slides available at: drive.google.com/file/d/0B3O55d_vCx53RWpxRzlDYTUxcW8/view
Data collection was by a method known as "clean
language" used to
naturally occurring metaphors (Tosey, Lawley & Meese, 2014). Five in-depth interviews focused on a student teacher's subjective
theories related to her pedagogical practice in secondary school. The goal of our research was not to uncover specific
tacit knowledge (content) but to investigate how it is manifested (how metaphors
appear in the interview process.
'Keeping your stuff out and gathering their stuff in'. The 5th LCSS PhD Methodology Conference, 15 June 2017 at University of Westminster.
Walker, C & Lawley, J
Walsh, B. & Doyle. N
'Clean Feedback: The bedrock for developing professionalism?' Presented at Learning to be Professional through a Life-wide Curriculum at University of Surrey Centre for Excellence in Professional Training and Education, Guildford 31 March-1 April 2009.
Walsh, B., Nixon, S. & Walker, C.
Clean Feedback is a process designed to aid critical reflection, observation skills and goal setting. It encourages both the giver and the receiver of feedback to separate out what is being seen and heard from the meaning it has for people. Receiving clean feedback trains people to be aware of the differing ways their actions may be perceived by others. Giving clean feedback trains the giver to become aware of their values and beliefs around other people’s behaviour. Giving clear examples of what it means to act in a professional way at work encourages staff and students to develop a flexible range of behaviours that maintain professional standards across diverse individuals. At Liverpool John Moores University this model has been introduced and evaluated with Post Graduate Trainee Teachers and the results of this pilot will be presented in our paper here.
Journeys; supporting the student learning experience'. Paper presented at the 4th European First-Year Experience conference, Netherlands (13th-15th May).