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References to books

Capra, Fritjof (1996) The Web of Life, London: Harper Collins.

Dilts, Robert B. & Epstein, Todd A (1995) Dynamic Learning, California: Meta Publications.

Grove, David J & Panzer, Basil (1989) Resolving Traumatic Memories: Metaphors and Symbols in Psychotherapy, Irvington, New York.

Harland, Philip (2009) The Power Six: A Six Part Guide to Self Knowledge, Ridgway, CO: Wayfinder Press.

Johnson, Steven (2001) Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities and Software. London: Allen Lane The Penguin Press.

Lakoff,  George & Johnson,  Mark (1980) Metaphors We Live By, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Lawley, James & Tompkins, Penny (2000) Metaphors in Mind: Transformation through Symbolic Modelling, London: Developing Company Press.

Rossi, Ernest (1996) Symptom Path to Enlightenment, Palisades, CA: Gateway Publishing.

Wilber, Ken (1995) Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution,  Boston, MA: Shambala.

Notes and references to articles available on the web.

1 Penny Tompkins and I first presented the three phases of Grove’s work in a keynote address to the Clean Conference, 22 June 2008. An audio recording of that presentation is available at:

2 David Grove defined 'psychoactive' as “taking on a life of its own”. Almost anything, a perception, space, drawing, object or movement of the body can, at a particular moment, become psychoactive for a person.  See ‘When Where Matters: How psychoactive space is created and utilised’, James Lawley. The Model, January 2006.

“In [complex adaptive systems] agents residing on one scale start producing behavior that lies one scale above them: ants create colonies; urbanites create neighbourhoods; simple pattern-recognition software learns how to recommend new books. The movement from low-level rules to higher-level sophistication is what we call emergence.” Steven Johnson, Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities and Software (p. 18).  See also ‘What is Emergence?’ Penny Tompkins and James Lawley, February, 2002.

4 (16 Sept. 2008)

5 “The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.” George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (p. 5).

6 “[The] common pattern of organization that can be identified in all living systems … its most important property is that it is a network pattern. Whenever we look at life, we look at networks.” Fritjof Capra, The Web of Life (pp. 81-82).

‘Recognition’ as a term for a domain of experience comes from Philip Harland, The Power Six: A Six Part Guide to Self Knowledge.Iteration’ is a process that repeatedly applies a rule, computation or procedure to the result of the previous application of the rule, computation or procedure. See ‘Iteration, Iteration, Iteration’, Penny Tompkins and James Lawley, February, 2007.

8 ‘Less is More ... The Art of Clean Language’, Penny Tompkins & James Lawley Rapport 35, February 1997

9 Clean Space: Modelling Human Perception through Emergence’, Penny Tompkins & James Lawley,  Anchor Point, Vol. 17, No. 8, September 2003.

‘Six Steps to Emergent Knowledge’, Matthew Hudson & Philip Harland, ReSource, February 2008, available at:

‘Clean Language Without Words’, Penny Tompkins and James Lawley, Rapport 43, Spring 1999.

12 Robert Dilts and Todd Epstein, Dynamic Learning (pp. 3-9)

13 This definition of ‘clean’ was inspired by Steve Saunders’ version posted on on 10 December 2010

“Different therapies have their own names for these five stages. In Symbolic Modelling we call them: Entry, Developing Symbolic Perceptions, Modelling Symbolic Patterns, Encouraging Conditions for Transformation, and Maturing.” James Lawley & Penny Tompkins, Metaphors in Mind: Transformation through Symbolic Modelling (p. 40).

15 ‘Set up’ and ‘set down’ are terms borrowed from ‘The Three Sets Model: Re-Modelling NLP Part Six: Understanding Change’, John McWhirter, Rapport 48, Summer 2000.

16 Stages 2, 3 and 4 can be mapped on to Ken Wilber’s 1-2-1 model of development described in Sex, Ecology, Spirituality: The Spirit of Evolution.  In other words: one, to many one’s, to one at a higher emergent level of organisation. Or put another way, the emergent whole transcends and includes its interacting parts. Also, Stages 2-5 can be mapped on to the four stages of the creative process: Data Collection (initiation); Incubation (induction);  Illumination (insight); Verification (reintegration). Ernest Rossi maintains that it typically takes a person 90-120 minutes to go through these four stages. See Chapter 6 in Symptom Path to Enlightenment.

17 The ‘PRO Model’ is described in ‘Coaching for P.R.O.s’, Penny Tompkins and James Lawley, Coach the Coach, Feb. 2006.

14 ‘Vectoring and Systemic Outcome Orientation’, Penny Tompkins and James Lawley, October 2008.

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